Project Budgets and Secrets

Let me start off by apologizing on the lack of new articles. This year has been hectic, but great in so many ways. I’m still doing my best to figure out time management and unfortunately that meant less writing in recent months. Nonetheless, the site lives on and with my lack of self-written posts I’ve made it a point to update the Notebook (almost) daily with great resources and articles. Have a peak if you haven’t in awhile.

On budgets and advising

With the year coming to an end in three months, it’s that time when any business should be reflecting on the good, bad and mediocre of past months in effort to change for the good the following year. Lately I’ve been reflecting my pricing methods and communication between myself and clients and clients and myself.

The majority of my clients I’ve never met in person (40% of my conversations never extend beyond email; mostly those of overseas clients), so I make it a point to build as much trust as possible given the circumstances – one is sharing my thoughts and processes on this blog. However the dreaded question of ‘pricing’ always tend to weaken the knees of everyone. Again, in a trust building effort I try to explain, in much detail, on what their project needs to accomplish, how we are going to do it and whats needed to accomplish it – one of which is a typical project”starting” price.

I also break the ice first by asking their budget. Before letting them respond, I quickly explain that sharing their budget allows myself to determine how much time I’m able to invest (since my estimates are based on my hourly rate and a projected amount of time). At the very least, I explain that determining their budget allows advising on how to best use their budget to accomplish their needs and wants (don’t confuse the two). For example, there are many instances when a client has a slightly lower budget than necessary to pave a truly successful outcome, but knocking off a few “wanted” (a.k.a. not necessary for launch but a cool feature) parts of their website to implement at a later time when they have additional investments is more beneficial than simply slapping something together.

Secrets, secrets, are no fun…

The reason I explain the above to all my clients before letting them interject with an actual budget is to help them understand how I work so they understand that I’m just not trying to get the highest price out of them. The more time I can invest the better the outcome. The more time I can research, prepare, try, scrap, try again, etc. Simple and fair, no? Still many conversations about budgets proceed like this:

Client: *pause* “Ummm… *pause* We don’t have a budget.” *awkward silence that awaits my next move*

Me: “Based on my explanation (above) on how I charge and my hourly rate of $XXX.XX, a starting price for a project you outlined will be $X,XXX.XX. Obviously the goals and outline of the project can change throughout the the course of your project so this is only an estimate, but for the most part they are quite accurate. This prevents the project from getting out of hand and beyond the scope of the contract.”

Client: *pause* “Ummm, well… that is substantially higher than we would like to spend.”

Ok, let’s stop there. Does the above situation sound familiar?

Within the first few minutes of contact — in my effort to be as open and detailed on how I work as possible — the client counteracted by lying about not having a budget to clearly having a budget. How does the relationship change? Put yourself in their shoes. Would you want to work for someone that lies and keeps secrets? Setting the tone and the relationship from the get-go is extremely important – not only from a client-designer standpoint but from a project standpoint. Honest work is good work and this goes both ways.

Discussion and Comments

+ Add to the discussion
  1. David Zemens says:

    Most clients think that the reason you are asking for their budget is so that you can somehow create your “project cost” to coincide with their “budget”.

    The real reason, however, is to determine compatibility between their budget and the time you, as a developer, expect to spend on the project.

    Clients who don’t like to divulge their budget exhibit “red flat” number one.

    Just saying.

  2. David Zemens says:

    I meant to say “red flag” number one!

  3. I run into this all the time too; it seems as soon as you mention the word “budget”, the client thinks you’re trying to take ‘em for all their worth. This couldn’t be farther from the truth, and it sounds like you employ good communication to make this clear.

    It IS unfortunate to start off on a potential project with a client lying to you. If I had the answer to counteract this, I’d share it – alas, I don’t.

  4. Brian says:

    Exactly, and I think thats where fully explaining your process and reasoning for asking for their budget comes into play. Many I find ask, “How much is your budget” and wait for a response with no reasoning as to why they are asking for a budget. Like you said, it’s a way to reflect on compatibility and in some instances to determine if their budget will handle the necessities of their project.

  5. Anthony Lane says:

    I feel you man, I consistently go through the same thing. Prospective clients being secretive, not wanting to reveal perhaps the most definitive thing, their budget. Like you, it remains a mystery…It’s going to come up sooner than later.

    I think one of the main reasons is that they underestimated the designers rates, and foresaw something more affordable than what is and become embarrassed, unsure, both. And rather than be upfront, they fumble for the correct answer.

  6. Very Nice article Brian, this is a subject that I’m consistently wrestling with. Clients never seem forthcoming with a budget. Perhaps I need to explain my working process better and relate the more time = better end product equation more clearly.

    Thanks for this. Gives me a lot to think about in how I deal with clients in those very important initial conversations.

  7. Dan Collins says:

    I always ask for a budget. Every so often it is more than I originally was going to quote. (those are the good clients). But some clients honestly have no idea what the budget should be. For the same job, they’ll get quotes from big agencies for mega $$ and quotes from newbies for $50.

    Much like research and planning will justify your design decisions to a client, explaining you process will justify your pricing.

    Good article.

  8. Greg Ash says:

    Great insight. I wonder if as an industry this is how we’ve trained clients to respond though. I would say that most freelance designers don’t understand how to put a value on their work. That said, with finger’s crossed, the client’s budget does that.

    Brian maybe in part two you can give some more insight into how you established your hourly costs.

  9. rob says:

    All too familiar and here’s what we did to combat it… We list prices!

    No seriously though, I know a lot of design professionals would snub us for this unheard of practice but let me explain a bit…

    By coming up with a general menu of services based on our project averages of the past 6 years we effectively prequalify our clients and save ourselves a ton of these scenarios where the client won’t disclose a budget…

    The client asks “what will this cost” and we politely refer them to the services section of our site. They can see the baseline costs we list which then gently forces them to disclose their budget…

    The beauty of it is (in our experience) that our clients and partners love being able to get a “ball park” and if our baseline prices are beyond their means it saves them the embarrassment of admitting to us they can’t afford it, and save our time of having to dance around the subject with a potential client who ultimately can’t afford us…


    They are pleased to see that we list numbers less then they expected and understand that what is listed is a baseline (starting point) and can evolve based on their project needs…

    Seriously, I can’t tell you how this has been a win-win scenario for us and our clients and partners…




  10. Brian says:

    I think that’s the key. Understanding the value of your work for many designers is hard enough, but to convey that to clients is a double-whammy. As for insight into pricing, I detailed something similar awhile back on that topic: ‘The Hows of Pricing Your Design Work’, however coming to terms with my actual hourly rate was a bit of trail and error over the course of 3 years and honestly find it difficult to come up with an approach to price yourself hourly. I think researching and book like The Handbook of Pricing and Ethical Guidelines are great places to get an idea for your industry, but then other factors like experience, true self-evaluation of your skills and creativity, and knowledge (for example, there’s building a website and there’s knowing the web and the medium well) all factor into a set rate. Also at the end of every year I start reflecting on my prices and skill level and adjust where needed.

  11. The problem of the client perception of my cost magically matching their budget that David mentions above is quite common for me in freelance. It’s almost like a game of poker with the client not wanting to give away what’s in their hand. But, as you say, they really should do so if we’re going to have a real conversation. Often there are several ways to provide a solution to their needs that are dictated by budget which is based on how much time I can/will spend.

    It’s a very tough conversation to have and you’ve made some really wonderful points about it. My typical strategy when talking about budget, after showing their project some love with questions and conversation about it, is to say, for something like this I try to work in the $xx to $xx range. What kind of budget did you have in mind? The previous conversation often gives me some ideas on what kind of client I’m dealing with, ie Honest Joe vs. As Low As I Can Go Moe, and they’re response to my innocent budget question is usually quite telling.

    So based on their response I’ll make the decision to either to continue the conversation or simply close the door.

  12. Kyle says:

    Great article Brian. I’m sure I was guilty of “not having a budget” when I started talking to you about our logo design. Thanks for your patience. I appreciated your openness and great communication during our conversations. Your services were one of the best investments I’ve made.

  13. Brian says:

    It’s great to get a client point of view on the matter, thanks for the comment and glad to see that you weren’t put off put the post. From a client standpoint, how do you think Designers could approach the situation better? Also, out of curiosity even though you did not have a “budget” did you have an amount to which you draw the line and say “well I definitely can’t / won’t spend that much” before you approach me or others? Also, really means a lot to me hearing such kind words once again from you. You truly are a great and honest friend and client. Hope all has been well.

  14. Jason Gross says:

    I love getting budgets from potential clients and try to get them out early as well. Although my explanation usually includes the fact that if I can get a good idea of their budget and project scope I can help them understand where they need to take their project.

    Like you mentioned in the article Brian, it is really helpful to be able to coach your clients on what all they can accomplish with the fund they have set aside. On the other hand if their project is over my head either in terms of ability or scope I can be a great resource for finding the right place for them to go. As a web designer I have been interacting with other freelancers and agencies for years and I have much more of an insight on everyone’s ability than they will after a few weeks of research.

    Overall my primary concern is helping this person who has thought enough of me to speak with me about a project. If I can convince the client of this they are going to feel a lot better about being open with me.

  15. Edgar says:

    I really wish someone would invent the ‘client-o-meter’ to measure how good or bad a potential client is.

  16. Josh Rucker says:

    Unfortunately, a lot of clients don’t really have a feel for what a project costs. They solicit as many bids/estimates as they can and reach for cheaper solutions due to their lack of understanding of the true scope and amount of work that goes into a particular project.

    It becomes really important to sell your clients on what they’re paying for, and how they’ll likely end up paying for it now, or later if they are really dedicated to a particular result. Obviously, everyone cares about about the cost and money always plays a factor. Make sure you’re showcasing your value.

  17. nelson fortaleza says:

    thanks for sharing this, this will be my new way in dealing my clients, thanks again it’s very encouraging

  18. Sarah K says:

    Thanks for the insight into your process. This is something that I’m still getting used to. I’m only just getting into doing design for money (in the past I did it for myself and friends as a hobby), and I’ve already noticed my lack of knowledge in this area.

    The first “real” client I had went really well only because they were nice and understanding. We got so caught up in the design process and the fact that they liked what I was coming up with, that the pricing aspect wasn’t even brought up until we were already several weeks into it. Yup, that was EXTREMELY nerve-wrecking when I had to tell them the cost. I’ve (hopefully) learned my lesson that, no matter how into the project the person is, these little details are better to be brought up and got out of the way at the start.

    I’ll definitely keep your process in mind for future clients, as well. It makes good sense to ask for the budget. I had tried that once and got the “I don’t really know” type reply, so I wasn’t sure if it was really very helpful in the long run. I can see, though, that if you properly explain it, it can be a huge help.

    Keep up the good work. :) It’s self-employed designers like you, who have found success in this industry, that inspire us “newbies” that it’s really possible.

  19. Logo Search says:

    It is important that you manage expectations on design projects. More often than not clients do not understand what goes into the design process.

  20. Alex says:

    Great article, Brian. Thanks for sharing your process. We’ve had success with asking for budgets most of the time – but there have certainly been times when clients don’t want to divulge.

    Here are two tips I have for pricing models that seem to work for clients with ongoing projects or a more vague set of requirements:

    1. Agile Pricing. Essentially it’s still time and materials but you sell them the concept of a 2-week sprint where you’ll have 1-2 dedicated people on the project for a total of X hours. Then you create a list of pages/templates that you will try to design in that time period and let the client know that their feedback is crucial for sticking to the schedule.

    2. The Estimate/Cap Method:
    For larger web projects where clients don’t understand or trust the agile system, you can give them an hourly range and if the scope stays as is once it’s defined, the project usually falls within it. If they change the scope they understand that the price will increase, but if the project was just poorly estimated by the designer, then once they hit the cap the hourly rate is made lower.

  21. I need to start putting this into practice, in the past whenever I asked about their budget the client just seem to get the wrong idea, I guess explaining to them why would really help

  22. Matt Heintz says:

    Great article. I’d emphasize that time is the most precious thing to a designer/developer not always money. We all have TONS of projects and ideas and things to do. Every client wants an awesome website and no web designer/developer wants to be stuck spending more time on a project than allotted.

    By asking for their budget, you also determine how serious they are about their project and working with you. It’s also a good idea to go over a working agreement, the roles and definitions of each party and the work process-journey.

  23. Hi Brian – I just started reading your blog based on a recommendation from our Web developer and I’m glad I stopped by.

    Great article on pricing. I’ve heard pricing referred to as the “holy grail” for good reason. A solid, consistent strategy is really elusive.

    I have found your description to be consistent with our experience with business consulting and product development projects. You’re absolutely right about setting the pace up front and just like any relationship you have every reason to feel uneasy about what you are getting into if the relationship is started with a lie.

    I find the strategy you outlined above, as well as other customer needs assessment techniques, to be crucial up front to determine if it makes sense to commit to a given client engagement.

  24. Idraki M. says:

    I think most client prefer us to give our estimation on the budget. And from that they will evaluate with their budget allocation and decide to go on with us or search for cheaper option.

  25. Just ideas says:

    Lovely article. Thanks for secrets :)

  26. Alex Penny says:

    Wish you had written this sooner, great advice!

  27. Ralph Mason says:

    Having had a lot of trouble with this issue, I’ve recently started to take a different tack (when charging for websites). I tell the client that their website will cost them nothing. Yep, nothing.

    Why? Because the point of a website is to make them money, not to cost them anything. So I put the onus on them to determine what value they expect the website will bring to their business over the period of one year. Then I ask for a cut of that profit – about as much as they would expect the site to make them in a half year. That way, they can expect a return on investment after six months. That should keep the accountants happy.

    However much profit they expect to make from the site helps to determine what level of sophistication to shoot for. If they are vague about all of this, they are probably not ready for a website (or other design work). They are wasting their money and my time.

    I’m trying to step away from the psychology of design work being a cost to clients. What we are really doing as designers is adding value to clients’ businesses. If that value can’t be demonstrated, then the work shouldn’t be done.

    (A similar problem is that employers view their employees as a cost to them; but without those employees, the business would fail. Ergo, the employees are an asset to the business, not a cost, and deserve a fair slice of the profits.)

  28. Ian says:

    @Ralph, I think your strategy sounds great and I think I’m going to give your solution a try, however I personally would like to tell them it’s going to cost a certain % of their anticipated return right away. Coming out of the gate telling them it’s not going to cost anything would be a red flag on their end thinking “what’s the catch” or “to good to be true”.

  29. Kyle says:


    Having never worked with a graphic artist, I felt overwhelmed as I scoured the Internet. I had a very real fear that a designer would not come up with what I needed. The more a designer can do to assuage this fear (as you did), the less important dollars and cents become.

    If I know exactly what to expect from a designer and like it, I’m more apt to choose him/her, even if the cost is higher. After all, I could be gambling by going with someone else.

    Several designers had quality work & lower bids than Brian, but their portfolios were small & their experience was limited. I didn’t want to gamble on them when I could pay a bit more and be guaranteed of a good result with Brian. (His blog assured me that he knew his stuff.)

    I’d suggest blog posts showing how a designer holds the client’s hand through the process. Thoroughly explain the design process with examples and make a case study of sorts. For example, I understood the idea that there would be rounds of revisions, but I didn’t realize there would be a good amount of flexibility in each of these revisions. This could be detailed to help me better understand the options available in each round.

    Even without a “budget,” I did have a dollar amount I wasn’t willing to go over, no matter how much I liked the designer. This wasn’t because I didn’t value their work. It was simply a logistical, financial decision since we had a new, very small business.

    Finally, communicate promptly and effectively with potential clients. I cannot emphasize this enough. Too many designers didn’t respond thoroughly or promptly (or at all) to my questions and that turned me off. Brian’s communication was what really sealed the deal for me. I peppered him with emails and questions and he was gracious enough to answer them in a timely manner.

    If it helps others feel better, I’m facing this same battle in our photography business. It is an ongoing struggle to convince people of the value of our work. Yes, we cost more, but the client will also like the results much more. I could also use suggestions on how to respond to budget concerns from potential clients.

    You’re very welcome Brian. I hope to work with you again in the future and meet you someday if I make it to Philly. Best wishes.

  30. Dennis says:

    For developers, I’ve noticed a lot of shops use a tool called Pivotal Tracker. It’s horrendous for designers to use, but the principles apply here. It allows transparent estimates at a micro level that help shape the conversation of what’s necessary and what’s not.

    The client makes daily joint decisions based on budget, time and velocity. There are no secrets and surprises because it’s all there for everyone to see at any time. “Stories” (Units that describe a particular feature) can be arranged to the order of importance and “releases” can be calculated automatically.

  31. Bo Pentecost says:

    Interestingly enough, I find that many who contact us for design services either don’t question the cost or are completely beside themselves when they hear it. I guess it comes down to their personal understanding that the value they put on quality design. Confidence in our abilities gives added value to those who hire us – but no amount of confidence can change the value in the mind of one who is uneducated on the topic.

  32. Jason says:

    I like to use a car analogy. When a client asks, “How much for a web site?” I can usually get them to provide me with a budget by comparing it to purchasing a new car.

    Because so much can go into a web site (both needs and wants), the price changes dramatically depending on the options chosen. If this were a car, I wouldn’t be showing the customer my finest line of luxury cars when all he really needs is a simple compact to get to work and back.

    Putting that perspective on the situation usually helps to shed some light on why I need to know the budget.

  33. Alex says:

    Jason – I’ve seen the car analogy work really well in the past. Good suggestion. Sometimes we designers forget that not all clients understand the varying complexity and range in web projects.

  34. Brian says:

    Great analogy and one I’ve used in the past as well. In continuation with the same “house browsing” analogy, often a person buying a house knows what their limit is, but doesn’t know what’s included in a house of their budget. Perspective and perception are two very different things and like you said, both help break down the whys and hows of pricing for a client.

  35. Carlos C says:

    thank you for sharing your thoughts and ideas here. It is definitely a challenge to establish budgets with clients specially those abroad where as you said the communication is mostly done via e-mail.
    I agree 100% on asking for their budget so you understand the flexibility you will have to create and deliver. From the beginning of any project I ask as many questions as possible and have client commit to attend to all my concerns, doubts etc. If I see the client is actively involved then I can decide whether or not it can be a successful project or longer term business relation. As I deliver punctuality and keep my word at all times I expect nothing less from them and I also try to make that as clear as possible. looking forward for some more of your posts.

  36. Ariana says:

    Helpful + encouraging article. I recently began freelancing, but I’m not sure I have the personality for it; I tend to be too nice.

    It is difficult pricing services. I got my GD degree earlier this year and will get an English degree this fall. It’s a pain trying to factor these in to pricing.

    Mostly, I wonder what more designers can do to communicate to the everyday person the value of (graphic) design – before clients approach the designer. I’ve often heard it said: “Anybody can be a graphic designer. It’s so easy.” I think this is why many clients come to the table expecting cheap services.

    In fact, one potential client expressed to me that she was looking for services for her new business, but that it is difficult to dish out money to several designers just trying to find the design the best addresses her wants/needs. Understandable, but it was clear that she misunderstood the value of the designer (skills, time, knowledge, software use, etc)., that she didn’t thoroughly research each designer’s work, nor did she engage in effective communication with each designer.

  37. Roshan says:

    Thanks you for this great article. I have always had problems with trying to convince the client about my prices. Most of them seem to think that it is the software and computers that does the job instead of the designer

  38. I’ve just published a post on my blog on my thoughts on this subject after reading your post, Brian. Take a look:

  39. Brian says:

    Just had a read through your article and glad to hear mine can be of some assistance for future client discussions. While I was a bit disappointed to hear the client failed to respond after the talk of money came up – don’t worry we have all been there – you are right of pointing out that explaining the why aspect will help a great deal. Clients respond to the ‘whys’ better than they respond to the ‘hows’ and that goes from dealing with money talks to dealing with design decisions. Transparency is key. Also, let’s put ourselves in their shoes: if I’m spending thousands of dollars I’d like to know what my money was being invested into more than something just “looking pretty.” I want to know how and why this will bring my goals into focus and drive results for my business.

  40. Dan says:

    Great article. This will definitely help me doing freelance work in the future. A huge issue in beginning design work on a freelance basis is the concept of value. You have to objectively assess your abilities, research the market and discover your personal value. Then once you know how much your time and talents are worth, you must convince the clients, since they are often not nearly as well informed about costs and practices. I think your advice will help greatly in the future.

    Also, I hate to nitpick, but in the third paragraph it reads “so I make it a point to build as must trust as possible given the circumstances.” I’m assuming “must” was meant to be “much.” Just letting you know. Thanks for the article.

  41. Aaron Kato says:

    This is apparently one of the best articles that I’ve read about pricing or handling clients regarding pricing and giving information. Thank you, I really enjoyed it!

  42. Brian, primarily reeling in clients and getting them to pay is becoming 200% a psychological game.

    Whatever price you quote, the client will bargain and try to drive the price down.

    As an officeless freelancer, you will be projecting “amateur” and “easy prey” signals unless you have a HUGE agency backing you or possess weighty client endorsements.

    The same client will pay 20 times your price willingly, for a professional agency to do the job. The agency might just give the client a minimal clean site (sans any graphics effort), with a clear crisp logo [read plain text logo] and the very same client would be salivating by now, and asking when do i pay?

    Its tough, but C’est la vie.

    I think it would be great if there was a human interface who would bargain and haggle for you and take 10% commission, while you just produce.

    You could also consider your initial quotation to be [honest quote + 20% (anticipated troubles)] with the following payment schedule.

    50% up-front fee
    plus 50% after delivery sign-off
    with some post delivery maintenance, preferably 15 days

    I am from India, and some mamma pappa shops actually have signs such as “No discount”, “Cash today, credit tomorrow” etc.

    Probably you need to put up sign boards on your landing page of thedesigncubicle, in a similar fashion !!

  43. Brittany says:

    This is a really brilliant article, and many people have expressed the same problems I have run into. Clients assume that when you ask for a budget, you want to fit your costs into that number. Ralph’s suggestion was a good one, and the comments in this thread are great, because they have provided me tools for future clients (using a car or house buying example). As a young designer, I am trying to build a database of knowledge so I don’t have too many pitfalls. Thanks again!

  44. TJ Taylor says:

    Outstanding article. This is/can be the biggest challenge when working with clients directly.

    Your perspective on the client “lying” about the budget is something I have never thought of in that light, but your exactly right.

  45. Lauren says:

    Really liked your post!

    Even though I’ve been on both sides of the fence, it is still much harder for me to be the “creative” and hammer out pricing. From my days as a client, I admit that hearing “What’s your budget?” really rubbed me the wrong way. It seemed used-car-salesman-like. I much preferred receiving a quote, and then if it was only reasonably out of range, seeing if we could do something to get it in range. I worked for a large company, so we didn’t mind a payment schedule — in fact, it helped with budgeting and actually provided a feeling of legitimacy — but I know there are lots of smaller clients who don’t want to hear from 30% up front.

    In my experience, most vendors provided good work in a reasonably timely manner. If we did have client-vendor relationship breakdowns, it was usually around the area of revisions. Was this feature included or wasn’t it? Did you reasonably test this to see if it worked? I try to make my revisions policy clear, but it is still a vulnerable spot. Wonder if anyone else out there has found a successful strategy?

  46. Dave says:

    I have this conversation every time I get together with my self-employed friends. Apparently, this issue rears its head within almost every sector I know of… architects, construction contractors, photographers, etc. Our general conclusions are to value your own time… or the client will place their own value to it.

    I often state a ballpark upfront because I don’t want to spend the time pulling together a “sticker shock” causing proposal. Occasionally I’ll even share my rate with the estimate of time required for the project. The more experienced the client, the better this goes. Obviously the inexperienced or “burned” clients are antagonistic from the get go. I find references help a ton. A history of treating people with respect and diligence goes a long way.

    Good conversation, sharing this immediately.

  47. Tucker says:

    Really good article. But, and not to argue with you, I work with liars all the time. I know they’re doing it and I’m used to it. It’s part of the process sometimes and I know it’s ugly but if we (designers) want to make money, don’t we have to bite the bullet sometimes?

    Maybe I have Stockholm syndrome or something.

    Looking forward to the next article. Also, thank you for the article on interactive PDFs. I used it to a degree for a project and the client was happy. I didn’t think it was a huge deal but they did.

  48. Jon Clark says:

    A variation of this is the client who wants the most elaborate, complex job print-wise. You continually advise them it’s going to be expensive but they keep telling you “Doesn’t matter – this is what we want, the money’s not a problem”.

    Then you price the job up for them, and suddenly money is a problem.

  49. Joshua Bowie says:

    Is there a method to pricing projects like a logo or email template for a single location company rather than dealing with a corporate that wants to use your artwork network-wide for multiple locations that are part of a franchise? Anyone have a process or formula for this?

Brian Hoff
About Brian Hoff: Designer, Writer and Speaker

I’m a graphic designer living in Brooklyn, New York who loves creating compelling and useful websites and memorable interactions across the web. When I’m not designing I can be found writing, speaking and occasionally part-time teaching at colleges — all on the subject of design. I started this blog to share my passion and experiences with designers and clients. I'm most active on Twitter; say hello: